Local projections in a world of spherical mercator

Update 2014-02-24: A more thorough and updated version on the topic is The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Tiled Maps.

The premise: you want to use the new and cool open source mapping solutions like Leaflet, TileStache and TileMill. While you love projects like OpenStreetMap, you are in a position where you cannot throw out your old map tiles, that are rendered in some local projection, instead of the the one projection to rule them all, spherical mercator. You need to coerce these tools to use your projection and your tiles.

Fortunately, these tools do support local projections, or at least were designed with this support in mind. Yay! Less fortunately, it seems very few actually use that functionality, and if they do, they are not bloggers, since we at Kartena couldn’t find any useful information on how to go about configuring local projections. That’s why we’re here! We want to share the wonderful world of local projections with you.

What are projections?

A projection (in cartography) is a way of transforming a location on the earth, typically described by a latitude and longitude, to a flat surface (a map) coordinate, like x and y. Projections come in a myriad and shapes and flavors, and different projections have different advantages and disadvantages (you can read up on that on Wikipedia, for example).

What is tiling?

Tiling means that we chop up a large (sometimes really, truly, huge) bitmap into smaller more manageable bitmaps that can later be put together to appear as one seamless image again. Tiling is used since it would not be possible to render those huge bitmaps (too large to keep in memory), and because time to transfer the bitmap to a client would be  unacceptable. Also, the client rarely looks at the entire map area, and only need small parts of it.

A contract for tiling

To make tiling possible, we need to set a standard for how to reference a certain part of the larger bitmap – if the client needs to show a certain geographic area, it needs to know:

  1. Tile size and scales: how many tiles fit into that area
  2. Tile origin: what the (projected) coordinates of those tiles’ corners are
  3. Grid alignment: given the tile grid origin, in what directions do the row and column coordinates of the grid grow?
  4. Tile naming: how to request a tile from the server, given its row and column coordinate in the grid

These four points constitute a contract about how tiling is done, and server and client need to agree on this.

For the spherical Mercator projection, Google Maps has set up what has ended being a de facto standard for tiling in this projection. This standard makes it easy to use spherical mercator with many different combinations of map clients and tile servers, since the contract is well defined, well documented and implemented almost everywhere (some variations exist, more on that later).

For other projections, this represents more of a challenge: all of the points above can be specified in a number of ways. We need to break down the points to something we can express in code.

Tile size and scales

We first have to agree on how large each tile is, both in pixels and in projected coordinates.

Deciding the tile size in pixels is fairly easy. Google Maps uses 256×256 pixels, and if you don’t have any particular reason to do otherwise, so should probably you.

The size of a tile in projected coordinates is somewhat trickier. Another way of formulating this is: what zoom/scale levels do you need. Each level will result in a different tile size in projected coordinates.

For example, let’s say that you have a level with the scale of one pixel per 100 projected coordinates (scale 1:100). If your tile size, in pixels, is 256×256, the tile size in projected coordinates will be 256 / (1/100) = 256×100 = 25 600 projected coordinate units.

The other way around, you can take projected coordinate units and multiply them by scale to get pixels: 25 600 projected coordinate units = 25 600x(1/100) = 256 pixels.

To sum up, we need to specify these two things:

  • The tile size in pixels
  • The scale for each zoom/scale level.

Tile origin

Tiles are organized in a grid. The rows and columns of the grid are numbered, and to make this numbering unambiguous, we need to define where in the projected coordinate space the grids origin (0,0) is.

Each projection transforms a certain area of the earth into a certain coordinate space. This coordinate space varies for each projection. Take for example EPSG:2400 (Swedish coordinate system RT90). It is well defined for latitudes 55.2 to 69.1 degrees north, and longitudes 10.57 to 24.18 degrees east. This is projected to the x-coordinates 1166653.6161 to 2032341.6763 and y-coordinates 6131388.6471 to 7690505.5552. In this case, it might be suitable to choose an origin at top left (1166653.6161, 7690505.5552) or bottom left (1166653.6161, 6131388.6471). Or you might even define the origin as (0,0), or any other coordinate that suits you. The important thing is that client and server agrees on the origin, or they will actually use two different grids.

Grid alignment

To further define the grid, we need to decide how rows and columns in the grid are numbered. We know the coordinate of the origin of (0,0), but what does it mean, in terms of projected coordinates, to increment the row or column coordinate?

In the world of spherical Mercator, there are to approaches here:

  • Google Maps and OpenStreetMap set the grid’s origin at the top left and row coordinate grows downward, such that the row coordinate grows the further south you go. Columns grow from west to east (left to right).
  • TMS (Tile Map Service) set the origin at bottom left, such that the row coordinate grows the further north you go. Columns grow from west to east (left to right), like Google Maps.

Tile naming

Given the definitions above, we can unambiguously calculate the grid row and column for a projected coordinate. What remains is how to request this tile from the server. This basically boils down to deciding on a naming standard for the tiles.

One of the most popular, employed by both Google Maps/OSM and TMS is often summarized as xyz. This standard calls the row y, the column x and the zoom level z, where zoom levels are numbered from 0 (most zoomed out, largest scale) and more zoomed in with increasing numbers. An example of a tile can look like this:


A great number of naming strategies exist, instead of using the rows and columns, the projected coordinate of one of the tile’s corners can for example be used. Zoom level can be denoted by the actual scale used, or resolution (that is, effectively the inverse of the scale).

Getting down to details

This is all fine and well, but also very theoretical. How do we actually implement this, if we want to use our own definition instead of spherical Mercator?

A widely used and pretty flexible way to break this problem down is to use these four components:

  • Projection - projects latitude and longitude to x/y
  • Scale definitions - defines what zoom levels are available and the scale for each level
  • Coordinate to grid transformation matrix - describes how a projected coordinate is transformed to a row and column in the grid
  • Tile naming template - given zoom level, row and column forms the filename, URL, et c. for the tile


Projection can be done in a lot of ways. One of the most flexible is to use an implementation of Proj.4 for the language you’re working in. At Kartena, we use Proj4Js in Javascript and pyproj for Python. spatialreference.org has Proj.4 definitions for all frequently used coordinate reference systems.

Scale definitions

Depending on your requirements, this can either be a list of your zoom levels’ scales, or a function, if zoom levels follow such a pattern.

Coordinate to grid transformation matrix

Getting projected coordinates to grid coordinates involves first applying the grid origin and the grid alignment, and then the scale to convert the projected coordinate to pixel coordinates.

These are all so called linear transformations, which can be expressed by these formulas:

grid_col = int(scale * (a * proj_x + b))
grid_row = int(scale * (c * proj_y + d))

where scale is the current scale level and a, b, c and d are constants; these constants can be expressed as a transformation matrix.

For spherical Mercator, this matrix looks like this: (0.5 / π, 0.5, -0.5 / π, 0.5). This can be interpreted as the origin is at (b,d) = (0.5, 0.5). Both x and y axis is scaled by a factor of 0.5 / π, but the y axis is inverted (grows from north to south) since c has a negative sign.

At first, this transformation might be the hardest one to grasp (especially if you’re not a fan of math). To make it easier, here are two variants of the transformation matrix that generally works well for many local projections.

Local projection with google maps/OSM tiling scheme

For a local projection where you want to use the Google Maps/OpenStreetMap tiling scheme, where rows grow from north to south (and your projected coordinates go the other way, so that y grows further north), you want to do this:

  • Set origo at the top left of the covered area (the point furthest north and west). Call this (origo_x, origo_y)
  • The transformation matrix is: (1, origo_x, -1, origo_y)


For a local projection where you want to use the TMS tiling scheme, where rows grow from south to north (and your projected coordinates go the same way, so that y grows further north), you want to do this:

  • Set origo at the bottom left of the covered area (the point furthest south and west). Call this (origo_xorigo_y)
  • The transformation matrix is: (1, origo_x, 1, -origo_y)

Tile Naming Template

This is usually one of the easiest steps, usually just a set of string replacements.

Practical example

Wow, you’ve almost reached the end! Let’s take a quick look how this might look in practice.

At Kartena, our favourite map client is currently Leaflet. Our only real problem with it, was that out of the box it doesn’t support any local projections. To solve this, we have written a small project called Proj4Leaflet, that acts as glue between Leaflet and Proj4Js. With this project, and the information above, you can easily have tiling maps with any projection supported by Proj.4.

Using what we’ve talked about above, we can put this all together in a few lines of code:

var resolutions = [8192, 4096, 2048, 1024, 512, 256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5]
,crs = L.CRS.proj4js('EPSG:2400'
    ,'+lon_0=15.808277777799999 +lat_0=0.0 +k=1.0 +x_0=1500000.0 +y_0=0.0 +proj=tmerc +ellps=bessel +units=m +towgs84=414.1,41.3,603.1,-0.855,2.141,-7.023,0 +no_defs'
    ,new L.Transformation(1, 0, -1, 0))
    ,scale: function(zoom) {
      return 1 / resolutions[zoom];
,mapUrl = 'http://api.geosition.com/tile/lmv/{z}/{x}/{y}.png'

First, we define the resolutions that we are going to use for the different zoom levels. Note that resolution (meters/pixel) is the inverse of scale (pixels/meter). This is reflected by the use of our custom scale function, which returns the inverted value.

We then set up the CRS (Coordinate Reference System) with its name, “EPSG:2400″, and the Proj.4 definition (the really long string).

Next, we set up the transformation matrix, exactly as described above. In this case, we have put origo at (0,0) and use the Google Maps/OSM tiling scheme, with rows growing from north to south. (Note that this results in row coordinates being negative; this is something we use for the “cleanness” of using a simple origo as (0,0)).

The last line is the string template for getting the actual tile URL, following the xyz scheme mentioned above.

290 thoughts on “Local projections in a world of spherical mercator

  1. Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info specifically the last part :) I care for such info a lot. I was seeking this certain info for a very long time. Thank you and good luck.|

  2. You should take part in a contest for one of the greatest blogs on the internet.
    I most certainly will recommend this blog!

  3. Good day very nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Amazing ..
    I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also?
    I’m glad to find so many useful information here within the post, we want work out extra techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing.

    . . . . .

  4. Ollywood Celebrity and social activist Swapna Pati,.
    ============================== ==========================.
    Facebook which was created out of frustration by Mark just to forget a crush.

  5. It is an honor to adhere to somebody like
    everyone as well as I look forward to reading more from your job.

    My weblog bit.ly [Rosita]

  6. This was not possible for him when he played in London and was recognized everywhere he went.
    Making your story dramatic can be against you, but there
    are equal chances that your story may get more and more readers.
    Yet majority of footballers still ignore the importance
    of freestyle soccer.

  7. The fundamental basis of top quality seo services dallas
    (Mercedes) is still the
    same as it’s constantly been: the sites that provide the most effective customer
    experience will always rank towards the top.

  8. Is your seo dallas (Leola)
    method focused on satisfying the search engine algorithms or is
    it focused on enhancing your user’s experience, addressing their requirements, as well as promoting
    their look for expertise?

  9. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a
    colleague who has been doing a little research on this.
    And he actually ordered me lunch because I found it for him…
    lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this subject here on your website.

    My blog post garcinia cambogia zoloft (Rubin)

  10. With our ‘New Zealand Has Talent’ appearing on television we are seeing this in action.
    She says her instincts and playscript prospects take
    precedence while picking out a movie. Filmmaking efforts on this theme sometimes make
    Delhi news in Hindi when they invoke particular sentiments
    among Movie critics and audience alike.

  11. You can also use the smartphone application to monitor housekeepers,
    maintenance crews or babysitters. s start, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers released a report stating tremendous rise in the
    combined sales of tablets and smartphones as it overtook PCs
    for the first time. This handset appears more elegant
    and bolder compared to its rivals.

  12. In fact, Chuck Norris served in the US Air Force in the late 1950s.
    They have their fears, their families, their problems, their jobs, their hard moments
    and their obsessions, of course. From what I’ve heard, entry level pricing for 1 carat Harry Winston engagement rings begin at around $15,000.

  13. I absolutely love your blog and find the majority of your post’s to be just what I’m looking for.
    Do you offer guest writers to write content to suit your
    needs? I wouldn’t mind creating a post or elaborating
    on a few of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome weblog!

  14. I have read so many articles or reviews regarding the blogger lovers
    however this piece of writing is actually a good article,
    keep it up.

    my web site … Orange County Executive Coach – Malinda

  15. extended familyWhatnuclear familyfive hundred five hundredtwonuclear familyrevolting disgustingitrevolting disgustingextended familyfive hundred nuclear
    familyboilsextended familytwofive hundred rigjt down to five hundredtwoextended familyisrevolting disgustingfive hundred
    extended familyrevolting disgustingthatextended family native search engine optimization iss simply the process ofrrevolting disgustinggextended family five hundrednuclear familyrevolting disgustingsystematicallyrevolting disgustingfive hundred
    tworevolting disgustingaddressingextehded familytwofive hundred
    five hundredtworevolting disgustingallrevolting disgustingfive hundred twoextended familytheserevolting disgustingfive hundred varied factors in order that your smll business’ website twoextended
    familycomesrevolting disgustingnuclear family tworevolting disgustingupextended familytwo twoextended familyrevolting disgusstingasextended familytwofive hundred five hundredhigh five hundredtwoextended familyasextended familytwofive hundred possible within the
    five hundredoutcomesfive hundred nuclear familyrevolting disgustingwhennuclear familytwo individuals
    seek for nuclear familytermsfive hundred which are five hundredrelawted twoextended familyrevolting disgustingtonuclear
    familytwo fiuve hundredtwoextended familyrevolting disgustingyourevolting disgustingtwofive hundred.

    Feel free too visit my web blog … local search seo tips

  16. Thank you, I’ve recently been looking for info approximately this topic
    for a long time and yours is the greatest I have discovered so far.
    But, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you sure about the source?

  17. I read this piece of writing fully on the topic of the difference of latest and previous technologies, it’s awesome article.

  18. It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! I’d certainly donate to this excellent blog!

    I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to
    my Google account. I look forward to new updates
    and will share this site with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

  19. ハロー。学校を卒業して働き始めた新卒で働き始めたクリニック。そのとき知り合った先輩に○○さんって、ナース合っていないんじゃないって言われました。そんな感じでも4年以上は看護師をやってきたけど、本当はうちは合っていない仕事かなとも思ってました。そんなときよく話してくれた同僚に、転職をしてもいいんじゃないと言われました。webでチェックしてみると様々な看護師求人サイトがありました。特に気になったのはナースパワーと看護rooですね。まずは無料で受けれるカウンセリングに行こうと思います。

  20. Additionally an Ecommerce Website guarantees the security
    of the items, keeps them well wrapped, makes cerrtain that if it is purchasing
    products tthat they are safe and also complimentary fromm hazard.

    Feel free too visit my web page … e commerce website

  21. 家には必ずある外壁、家そのものの要素でもある、家のデザイン、意匠を決めている外壁、外壁材料です。その外壁をいろいろ解説しています。またリフォームでは、外壁の塗装の価格、耐用年数(外壁そのものより塗装に気が行っている)

  22. Just desire to say your article is as surprising. The clarity for
    your submit is just cool and i could suppose you’re a professional on this
    subject. Fine along with your permission allow me
    to grasp your RSS feed to stay up to date with coming
    near near post. Thanks a million and please continue the rewarding work.

  23. magnificent points altogether, you just gained
    a brand new reader. What would you recommend about your post
    that you simply made some days in the past? Any certain?

  24. レーシックのオペをしようか怖さが勝ってなかなか前に進めない、という悩みを聞きます。正直、痛み止めを使用して手術しますから痛みに襲われることはありません。リスクについて十分理解してコチラなら心配することなくできると納得できる医者で施術をするなら 大丈夫だと思います。

  25. Hey there, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.

    When I look at your blog site in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it
    has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads
    up! Other then that, terrific blog!

    Also visit my web-site garcinia cambogia
    usa nutra labs reviews – Tasha -

  26. 男性のお悩みに効果的な方法は、血の巡りを良くする、増大によく効く成分を含むサプリメントを使ってみる、運動をするという3方法です。それゆえ、料金から判断を行わずにしっかりとその商品が安全かどうか確認を実施し買うようにしましょうね。

  27. I have read so many posts regarding the blogger lovers but this
    post is genuinely a nice paragraph, keep it

  28. こんにちは

  29. 主婦がキャッシングしようと思った場合に、夫に内緒にしたい人が少なくなく、ついついバレてしまうことがイヤで実行できずにいる人が少なくないようです。実際のところは一般的な金融会社ではパートなど定職のある主婦ならば夫やそれ以外の身内など誰にもバレることなく借り入れを行う事が可能なのです。キャッシングをしたとすると返済日までに借り入れ額に利息をプラスした額を返済しなければいけませんが、一度でも延滞をすると業者から一度で支払いを要求される場合もあります。ですので、金額を用意できない場合はまず業者に伝えておくとよいでしょう。突然な督促は来なくなり返済についての相談にのってくれます。

  30. 至急必要なキャッシングは、対応してくれるクレジット会社をしっかりと選択して活用したほうが良いです。業態的に消費者金融などいろいろあります。これらはあなたの仕事の状況などで違いがありますが、借入を利用する場合は、既存顧客の満足度などを考慮して決定するべきです。

  31. こんにちは。僕は、来月で40代になります。顔にはシワとニキビ

  32. It’s really a cool and helpful piece of info. I’m happy that you shared this helpful information with us.
    Please stay us up to date like this. Thank
    you for sharing.

    my web-site food4patriots – Stefan -

  33. Having read this I believed it was extremely
    enlightening. I appreciate you finding the time and energy to put this article together.
    I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading and leaving comments.

    But so what, it was still worth it!

  34. It’s really very complicated in this active life to listen news on Television, so I simply use the web for that purpose, and take the most
    recent information.

  35. おはよう。私は何年も前からダイエットを行ってきました。体重は痩せてもまた太ったりで結局たいして体重が落ちてません。ですが、30歳を超えると昔よりも少ない食事量でも太りやすくなってきたと感じています。そのため、今からでも本気でダイエットしようと決めたんです。しかも夏になります。ですからいろんなサイトを見て調べたんです。どんなやり方のダイエット法があるのか、こんなやり方のダイエット法がおすすめとかの知識が増えました。最近は酵素を使ったサプリのダイエットが話題になっていますね。栄養を取りながらダイエットできるようです。また、エステサロンなどで人気の高い痩身ですね。これも美を高めながら痩せる方法ですね。その痩身エステにもいろんな機械を使って効果が期待できそうです。しかもほとんどのエステには体験コースというものがあって値段が安いので、まずは体験コースからやってみることをお勧めします。そして食べものも大事です。また、野菜野菜が苦手な方は野菜ジュースや青汁などでしっかりと決行的にダイエットしましょう。

  36. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the layout of your blog?

    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could
    connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two pictures.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  37. おはよう。私は今月で28歳と5カ月になります。そして子に季節になりました。ですからやっぱりむだ毛はをやっておきたいですよね。今では、全国に脱毛サロンがたくさんあります。やりたいところは、人によりますが、特に気になるのは鼻です。私は、全身脱毛のダンディハウスを選びました。そのおかげで、だいぶムダ毛がなくなっています。やはり一人で処理するのとは、違います。あとちょっとダンディハウスに脱毛しにいってムダ毛を減らしたいです。でも、脱毛専門のエステサロンに通ったとしても知りたいのは脱毛にかかる金額です。それについては、先生に聞けばいいでしょう。あと気になるのが、長い間通わないといけないのかです。私はできれば、9カ月くらいですべて終わってくれるといいですけどね。まあ、今から行く人はカウンセリングしてみましょう。

  38. ハロー。僕は今月の末尾で31歳と4カ月になります。そしてムシムシする時期になりました。ですから早く無駄な毛はをやっておきたいですよね。今では、全国に脱毛エステがめちゃくちゃあります。やりたいところは、人それぞれですが、特に多いのは産毛です。私は、店舗が多い脱毛ラボに通っています。そのおかげで、だいぶムダ毛が減ってきました!やはり自分で処理するのとは、効果が凄いです。これからも脱毛ラボに脱毛しにいってムダ毛を少なくしたいです。でも、脱毛サロンに通ったとしても気になるのが脱毛にかかる料金です。それについては、脱毛ラボに聞けばいいでしょう。もう一つ気になるのが、長い間通わないといけないのかです。僕はできれば、3カ月くらいで完全に終わってくれると理想的ですね。まあ、今から行く人はカウンセリングしてみましょう。

  39. You are so cool! I do not think I have read a single thing like this before.
    So great to find someone with a few genuine
    thoughts on this subject. Seriously.. thank
    you for starting this up. This site is one thing that’s needed on the web,
    someone with a little originality!

  40. twoextended familyTherevolting disgustingnuclear family five hundredextendfed familyrevolting disgustingluxuriousnuclear familyfive hundred twonuclear familyrevolting disgustingandnuclear familytwofive hundred prime quality furnishingsfive hundred revolting disgustingthatfive
    hundred five hundredextended familyrvolting disgustingtheyextended family extended familyseektwo mmay be nicely tworevolting disgustingoutrevoltin disgustingnuclear familytwo five hundredtwoexrended familyrevolting disgustiingofrevolting disgustingnuclear familytwo five hundredtwoextended familytheirrevolting disgustingextended familytwofive hundred finances, buut five hundredtwonuclear familyleasesextended family five hundredextended familycantwofive
    hundred offer an answer.

    Feel free to visit myy page: office space los angeles cheap

  41. I do trust all of the ideas you have offered to your post.
    They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the
    posts are very short for starters. May you please prolong
    them a little from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  42. Nice post. I was checking continuously this weblog and
    I am impressed! Extremely helpful information specifically
    the closing part :) I take care of such info a lot. I was looking for this particular info for a long time.
    Thanks and good luck.

  43. Facilities that are outfitted with big, aerated storage tanks, as well as have special bacteria’s that will
    certainly delete all the organic product as well as nutrients, which is the secondary treatment that
    could be preformed prior to completion result is discarded back right
    into the setting, in large seeping fields like that of a home septic systems design ontario system.

  44. To have a septic system maintenance contracts (Moshe) tank installed, the homeowner
    should acquire an authorization from the local public health district The permit
    specifies the conditions and also needs needed for the septic

  45. The good idea concerning septic systems is they are typically great for the atmosphere and also are usually self helpful, implying the microorganisms’s that should already exist to break down the waste
    normally occur inside the septic system design requirements (http://www.ndbidwell.com) system.

  46. こんにちは。僕は今日で28歳と10カ月になります。そして子に季節になりました。ですからできればむだ毛は脱毛をやっておきたいですよね。近年では、全国に脱毛クリニックがめちゃくちゃあります。やりたいところは、人それぞれですが、特に多いのは産毛です。私は、女性に人気の脱毛ラボで脱毛しています。そのおかげで、だんだんとムダ毛が少なくなってきました。やはり家で処理するのとは、違います。脱毛ラボに脱毛しにいってムダ毛を減らしたいです。でも、医療クリニックに通ったとしても怖いのが脱毛にかかるお金です。それについては、スタッフに聞けばいいでしょう。あと気になるのが、いつまで通わないといけないのかです。私はできれば、半年くらいで全部終わってくれると嬉しいです。まあ、脱毛ラボに行きたい人は相談してみましょう。

  47. This presents problems if you want to expand a residence orchard: Your
    fruit trees can potentially destroy the septic systems can be hazardous because (Wilhemina) lines, as
    well as the fruit container pick up bacterial contamination from the

  48. Therefore it is important to keep in mind that flushing overwhelming feline litter at once or
    in overall could overload your septic systems maintenance; Ollie, system storage

  49. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it, you might
    be a great author.I will make certain to bookmark your blog and may come back
    down the road. I want to encourage continue your great job, have a nice weekend!

    my weblog digestive tract benefits – Stella -

  50. Howdy great blog! Does running a blog similar to this require a massive amount work?

    I’ve no expertise in computer programming but I was hoping to start my own blog in the near future.
    Anyways, if you have any suggestions or tips for
    new blog owners please share. I know this is off subject but I simply wanted to
    ask. Thanks a lot!

    Feel free to surf to my website garcinia cambogia vitacost

  51. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog
    posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access
    consistently rapidly.

  52. These are all in addition to traditional medicinal practises.
    qualified sensual massage (Stuart) is usually performed with firm, smooth strokes, kneading, friction, tapotement, friction, tapping, and shaking motions on the
    more superficial muscles relax, she’ll be able to let the pressures of everyday life.
    You tantric massage don’t have to move around and pump
    blood through the body easier.

  53. These tests might cost from several hundred to
    several thousand bucks, according to the EPA.

    my site – septic system maintenance massachusetts,

  54. 脱毛エステサロン|脱毛サロン|脱毛エステには全てのプログラム|メニュー|コースの料金表が置いてありますが、中には内容が細かすぎる|多すぎる|たくさんありすぎるものもまま|時に|ときどきあります。自分の願い|希望|したいことに合致した|マッチした|ぴったり合った内容のプログラム|メニュー|コースはありますか?と事前に確認するのが賢明|ベスト|いいでしょう。顔脱毛の脱毛エステサロン|脱毛サロン|脱毛エステの永久脱毛で活躍中のフラッシュ脱毛|光脱毛|フォト脱毛は、名称から想像できるように、光を照射して脱毛する|毛を減らす|むだ毛をなくす特別な方法となります。光|光やレーザー|フラッシュは、性質的に黒い物質に作用します|反応します|働きかけます。すなわち|つまり黒い毛根のみに直接的に働きかけるのです。

  55. My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find many of your post’s
    to be exactly what I’m looking for. can you offer guest writers to
    write content available for you? I wouldn’t mind producing
    a post or elaborating on a number of the subjects you write in relation to here.
    Again, awesome web log!

    Here is my weblog: garcinia cambogia reviews dr oz

  56. アクセス増応援ホムペです。貴方だけの各個の独占ページを作成するSEO措置を施しています。